||Ingocar 1,174 lbs - Platform 645 lbs
|Length, Width, Height
||170“ x 70“ x 57“
||40 hp 35 lbs.
||1.4 MJ (31 hp·min)
|Wheel motors (4)
||485 hp 64 lbs.
||2.5 sec. (0-62 mph)
||7 + 15 cu ft. (front, rear)
||Active bumpers (4 sides, each 24")
The Hydraulic Hybrid 'Ingocar' achieves extreme low fuel consumption and emissions at currently not obtainable performances and safety conditions. The mileage of 190 mpg reflects the simulation of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC).
Already 20 years ago, the outstanding performances have been published in the New York Times.
The extraordinary high reductions in weight, fuel consumption and emissions are the result of the lightweight platform structure with active bumpers, high-pressure free-piston engine, and the recupe-ration of the entire braking energy. The new Ingocar is therefore more than 2,000 lbs lighter than conventional cars of the same size, and the engine and energy recuperation reduce the fuel needed to produce 1 hp for driving by 43%.
The weight reduction of 426 lbs. - when compared with the previous 170 mpg version (1,600 lbs.) - is achieved through the intense application (47%) of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) and the resulting lighter drivetrain, reducing the fuel consumption and emissions by 13%. Nevertheless, the manufacturing costs are lower than those of conventional cars of the same size and quality. It is planned to produce drivable platforms to be sold to manufacturers of cars.
The car consists of the sections platform and body. They are produced independently from each other and are connected at the final stage of the assembly through four dampening elements. Vehicle bodies of different types can be attached. Size and power of the platform are determined by the weight of the car, wheel base and track. The actively controlled pneumatic/hydraulic elements increase the driving comfort noticeably.
The car platform (without side bumpers)
The load carrying platform is drivable and consists of the accumulator as backbone and energy storage device, the engine, and the four wheel motors. The accumulator, because of its high internal pressure, is very rigid, but slightly reinforced to absorb the additional forces of the sus-pension and from a collision without damage. Bumpers on all four sides are extended automatically by 2 feet before a crash occurs and absorb the impact energies from speeds up to 40 mph, at a decelera-tion of ca. 7g. Before a contact with a pedestrian occurs, the setting will be adjust-ted to 'soft' to reduce the forces significantly. All energies from collisions are stored in the accumulator. The energies from higher speeds are also fully absorbed, but result in higher g-forces.
Bursting of the accumulator during an accident is nearly ruled out because of the long distances available to absorb the crash ener-gies. The shortest being more than 48” (4 ft.) - about three times that of current cars. In addition, most of the pressurized, non-flammable gas of the accumulator is released shortly before impact.
Bumper in driving position
With improving electronic control systems (GPS, car2car communica-tion) the active bumpers enable a cloud controlled bumper-on-bumper-contact traffic pattern for improving safety and reducing fuel consump-tion and emissions. The very simple control of the hydrostatic drive (speed, State-Of-Charge [SOC] of the accumulator, engine on-off) and the active bumpers (merging-leaving the train) supports this process. The independent and fast control of torque at each wheel allows 'torque vectoring' for improving the handling and stability of the car.
The free-piston engine, and the wheelmotors during braking, pump fluid under high pressure (up to 7,000 psi) into the accumulator and com-press the section filled with pre-compressed, non-flammable Nitrogen gas to store the energy. When reaching the desired SOC, the engine will be automatically turned off, and the pressurized fluid drives the wheel motors up to maximum speed, without shifting. For braking, the motors are reversed and pump the entire recuperated braking energy back into the accumulator. The stored energy is sufficient for a driving distance of about 5 miles. The SOC is controlled to provide always full capacity for acceleration and braking.
The accumulator, when compared with batteries, maintains its capacity also at low temperatures and has an unlimited life. There are no costs for replacing the battery and the effects of recycling (number of devices, type of material) are significantly reduced.
The simulation of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) results in a fuel consumption of 190 mpg and CO2 emissions of 33 gr/km. The high mileage results from the reduced vehicle weight of 2,200 lbs. (-65%), low specific fuel consumption of the free-piston engine (-35%), recupe-ration of the entire braking energy (City -31%, NEDC -14%), and low drag resistance (cw = 0.22, small drivetrain and cooling requirements).
A passenger car (C-Segment) with an actual mileage of 59 mpg pro-duces the same amount of CO₂ (95 gr/km) as a comparable electric vehicle. 66% less CO₂ is achieved with the Hydraulic Hybrid Ingocar. Tests at ADAC (German equivalent to the AAA) showed significantly higher emission than stated: Renault Fluence Z.E.: 1,543 kg, 14 kWh/ 100km, 79 gr/km CO₂ consumed actually 25.7 kwh/100km with 145 gr/km CO₂ - an increase of 84%. (Tesla S: 2,108 kg, 89 mpg / 2.65 L/100km, 62 gr/km CO₂)
Base: Specific CO₂ Emissionen for producing electricity = 500 gr/kWh. Currently: USA 480 gr/kWh, Germany 470 gr/kWh. The 500 gr/kWh for the EV include the CO₂ emissions, occuring during the production of the battery. (I. Hirose, M Hitomi, ‘Mazdas Weg zu effizienteren Verbrennungsmotoren‘, Motortechnische Zeitschrift (MTZ), May 2016, Springer Verlag.
The complete hydrostatic recuperation of braking energy also elimi-nates the considerable amount of particulate matter (PM) or fine dust from braking.
The characteristic of the hydro-pneumatic shock absorbers of the suspension and those between platform and body are electronically adjustable. The undesirable movements of the car body (leaning, diving during braking, etc.) are avoided and the absorption of shocks signify-cantly improved. The energies gained during dampening are stored in the accumulator, but are not included in the simulation of the NEDC.
The lower weight is the result of the load carrying function of the accu-mulator, the small and light drivetrain, and simplified car body without sections to absorb crash forces. The calculation of the weight for the car body is based on computer simulations, and that of the car body predominantly on data from research reports from the Rocky Mountain Institute. (T.C. Moore, A.B. Lovins: Vehicle Design Strategies to Meet and Exceed PNGV Goals.)
An additional electric Module (E-Module), consisting of a battery, electric motor and hydraulic pump for charging the accumulator, can be attached to the front axle. The combustion engine at the rear axle can remain to offer long distance travel. The portable version of the Module (130 lbs, battery 95 lbs), allows for an emission-free travel of up to 60 miles. To triple the distance, a second and third battery can be attached at the rear axle, instead of the combustion engine. However, it has to be considered, that at a mileage of 190 mpg, the overall CO₂ emissions (well to wheel) of an electrically driven car are significantly higher.
Platform with Electric-Hydraulic Charge Module
The pictures show the self-supporting, drivable platform and its integration into the Ingocar. The bumpers for side impacts are not shown for proprietary reasons.
Video and Platform with Electric Module show previous versions of the Ingocar.